Sunday, 28 February 2010

A Question of Diversity

A Question of Diversity

21 Dec 09 - Miguel A. Altieri - Sloweek

Biodiversity in agriculture or agro-biodiversity refers to all crops and animal breeds, their wild relatives, and other species such as pollinators, symbionts, natural enemies of pests, soil fauna, etc that co-exist and interact within croplands and/or their surrounding environments. It includes populations of locally adapted crop varieties and animal races as well as wild and weedy relatives from which the entire range of the domestic crops used in world agriculture is derived.

Agro-biodiversity components perform ecosystem functions and deliver services that sustain the resources and ecological processes upon which agriculture depends. Ecosystem services beyond production of food, fiber, fuel, and income include recycling of nutrients, control of local microclimate, regulation of local hydrological processes, pollination, regulation via biological control of the abundance of undesirable organisms, detoxification of noxious chemicals, etc. All renewal processes and ecosystem services performed by agro-biodiversity are largely biological, therefore their persistence depends upon maintenance of biological diversity and the ecological integrity of agricultural systems.

When these natural services are lost due to biological simplification due to intensification of agriculture, the economic and environmental costs can be quite significant. In industrial agriculture the burdens include a reduction in crop production due to enhanced pests that become resistant to pesticides or due to elimination of their enemies, decreases in pollinators, and other services such as the capacity of soils to sequester carbon dioxide, etc. In general there is an overall reduction in the overall quality of life due to soil, water, and food contamination with accumulation of pesticide and/or nitrate residues, on less dietary diversity associated with monocultures.

The net result of biodiversity simplification is an industrial agricultural monoculture that requires constant human intervention in the form of mechanization and agrochemicals that in addition to posing environmental damage they heavily depend on energy subsidies and produce copious amounts of greenhouse gases.

Modern agriculture implies the simplification of the structure of the environment over vast areas, replacing nature's diversity with a small number of cultivated plants and domesticated animals. In fact, the world's agricultural landscapes are planted mostly with some 12 species of grain crops, 23 vegetable crop species, and about 35 fruit and nut crop species; that is no more than 70 plant species spread over approximately 1,440 million ha. of presently cultivated land in the world, a sharp contrast with the diversity of plant species found within one ha. of a tropical rain forest which typically contains over 100 species of trees .

Genetically, modern agriculture is shockingly dependent on a handful of varieties for its major crops. For example, in the U.S., 60 to 70% of the total bean acreage is planted with two to three beans varieties, 72% of the potato acreage with four varieties and 53% with three cotton varieties. Researchers have repeatedly warned about the extreme vulnerability associated with this genetic uniformity.

A growing number of scientists, farmers, and the general public fear for the long-term sustainability of such highly input-dependent and ecologically simplified food production systems. These concerns have gained renewed attention with the expansion of transgenic crops and agro-fuel plantations which by 2008 covered more than 140 million hectares leading to further large-scale landscape homogenization which will exacerbate the ecological problems already associated with industrial agriculture.

Industrial agriculture, monocultures and Third World small farmers
Unquestioned expansion of these industrial models into developing countries is not desirable especially when consequences of promoting monocultures results in serious social and environmental problems as exemplified by the Green Revolution launched in the developing world in the 60s and 70s and now promoted in Africa by the AGRA program. These people assume that progress and achieving development in traditional agriculture inevitably requires the replacement of local crop varieties for improved ones, and that the economic and technological integration of traditional farming systems into the global system is a positive step that enables increased production, income and commonly well being. But as evinced by the Green Revolution integration brought in addition several negative impacts:

• The Green Revolution involved the promotion of a package that included modern varieties (MVs), fertilizer and irrigation, marginalizing a great number of resource-poor farmers who could not afford the technology.
• In areas where farmers adopted the package stimulated by government extension and credit programs, the spread of MVs greatly increased the use of pesticides, often with serious health and environmental consequences.
• Enhanced uniformity caused by sowing large areas to a few MVs increased risk for farmers. Genetically uniform crops proved more susceptible to pests and diseases, and also improved varieties did not perform well in marginal environments where the poor live.
• Diversity is an important nutritional resource of poor communities, but the spread of MVs was accompanied by a simplification of traditional agro-ecosystems and a trend toward monoculture which affected dietary diversity thus raising considerable nutritional concerns.
• The replacement of folk varieties also represents a loss of cultural diversity, as many varieties are integral to religious or community ceremonies. Given this, several authors have argued that the conservation and management of agrobiodiversity may not be possible without the preservation of cultural diversity.

Concerns have been raised about weather the introduction of transgenic crops may replicate or further aggravate the effects of MVs on the genetic diversity of landraces and wild relatives in areas of crop origin and diversification and therefore affect the cultural thread of communities. The debate was prompted by Nature’s controversial article reporting the presence of introgressed transgenic DNA constructs in native maize landraces grown in remote mountains in Oaxaca, Mexico . Although there is a high probability that the introduction of transgenic crops will further accelerate the loss of genetic diversity and of indigenous knowledge and culture, through mechanisms similar to those of the Green Revolution, there are some fundamental differences in the magnitude of the impacts. The Green Revolution increased the rate at which modern varieties replaced folk varieties, without necessarily changing the genetic integrity of local varieties. Genetic erosion involves a loss of local varieties but it can be slowed and even reversed through in-situ conservation efforts which conserve not only landraces and wild-weedy relatives, but also agro-ecological and cultural relationships of crop evolution and management in specific localities. Examples of successful in-situ conservation have been widely documented.

There is strength in the agricultural diversity of many African, Latin American and Asian countries, where traditional and small farmers have historically used mixed farming systems with high degrees of plant diversity in the form of polycultures, agroforestry and animal integration patterns, providing a strong ecological foundation to sustain small farm productivity and to design agroecological models that provide food security for thousands of rural and urban poor. In Latin America small farmers who farm less than 30 % of the total cultivated land account for approximately 41% of the agricultural output for domestic consumption, including 51% of the maize, 77% of the beans, and 61% of the potatoes consumed at a regional level. In Africa the majority of farmers, many of them women, are smallholders who practice “low-resource” agriculture producing the majority of grain; almost all root, tuber and plantain crops, and the majority of legumes. In Asia, only a few of the more than 200 million rice farmers farm more than 2 ha of rice. In China alone there are probably 75 million rice farmers who still practice farming methods similar to those used more than one thousand years ago. Local cultivars, grown mostly on upland ecosystems and/or under rain-fed conditions, make up the bulk of the rice produced by Asian small farmers.

Biodiversity and organic agriculture.
Extensive research shows that organic agriculture has positive impacts on biodiversity and that farmland under organic agriculture does not exhibit the dramatic declines of many plant and animal species as observed in areas dominated by conventional agriculture. In a recent survey of the literature, 76 published studies report that species abundance and/or richness, across a wide-range of taxa, was higher on organic farms than on locally representative conventional farms. These biodiversity benefits are derived form the specific environmental features and management practices employed within organic systems, which don’t rely on monocultures and associated agrochemicals but in turn encourage biodiversity and heterogeneity which provide critical habitat for wildlife.

The majority of organic farming systems tend to minimize energy and resource use, by recycling resources within the farming system and by enhancing biodiversity which in turn mediates ecological functions rush as pest regulation soil fertility and productivity. The basic components of sustainable organic systems are (1) use of cover crops, mulches, and no-till practices a effective soil an water-conserving measures; (2) promotion of soil biotic activity through the regular addition of organic matter such as manure and compost; (3) use of crop rotations, crop/livestock mixed systems, agro-forestry, and legume-based intercropping for nutrient recycling; and (4) encouragement of biological pest control agents through introduction and/or conservation of natural enemies via habitat management and crop diversification. Through the adoption of such practices, organic farmers aim to:

• buildup of soil organic matter and soil biota;
• minimization of pest, disease and weed damage;
• conservation of soil, water, and biodiversity resources;
• long-term agricultural productivity;
• optimal nutritional value and quality of produce;
• sequestration of carbon and thus mitigating climate change
• create an aesthetically pleasing environment.

Carefully designed, timed and intensively managed biodiverse cropping systems are vital in the integral management of soils, weeds, pests, and diseases. Plant diversity in annual and perennial crops can help restore soil fertility, increase biomass and reduce soil compaction and erosion. They also contribute to moisture retention, weed control, and enhance biological control of pests. The literature is full of examples of experiments documenting that diversification of cropping systems often leads to reduced herbivore populations because in such systems predators and parasitoids thrive thus regulating pest numbers below economic levels.

Organic matter rich soils contain a high biomass fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes, as well as animals such as nematodes, mites, collembola, diplopoda, earthworms and arthropods . A square meter of an organic temperate agricultural soil may contain 1,000 species of organisms. One gram of soil may contain over a thousand fungal hyphae and up to a million or more individual bacterial colonies. These organisms directly interact with plants through mutualisms and commensalisms, and in their role as regulators of soil ecosystem processes soil organisms perform a number of vital functions such as decomposing litter and cycling nutrients and converting atmospheric nitrogen into organic forms, as well as synthesizing enzymes, vitamins, hormones, and allelochemical that regulate plant growth.

Agroecology and biodiversity
Agroecology is the science that provides the guidelines to assemble biodiverse agroecosystems which rely for production of healthy food on ecological services such as the activation of soil biology, the recycling of nutrients, the enhancement of beneficial arthropods and antagonists, and so on. In agroecology, a main strategy is to enhance beneficial organisms through various combinations of crops, trees and animals in spatial and temporal arrangements such as polycultures, agroforestry systems and crop-livestock mixtures. Throughout the world agroecologists encourage these agricultural practices which increase the abundance and diversity of above and below-ground organisms, which in turn provide the ecological infrastructure that allows the production of healthy food without using external inputs thus de-coupling agriculture from strict petroleum dependence. Of key importance for planetary survival are observations of agricultural performance after extreme climatic events which reveal that resiliency to climate disasters is closely linked to high levels of farm biodiversity.

Rural social movements, agroecology and food sovereignty
The scaling up of a biodiverse and sustainable agriculture will require significant structural changes, in addition to technological innovation, farmer-to-farmer networks and farmer-to-consumer solidarity. A radical transformation of agriculture is needed, one guided by the notion that ecological change in agriculture cannot be promoted without comparable changes in the social, political, cultural and economic arenas that conform and determine agriculture. The organized peasant and indigenous based agrarian movements such as the international peasant movement Via Campesina and Brazil’s Landless Peasant Movement (MST) have long argued that farmers need land to produce food for their own communities and for their country and for this reason has advocated for genuine agrarian reforms to access and control land, water, and biodiversity which are of central importance for communities in order to meet growing food demands.

People's food security and health as well as the environment, food production has to remain in the hands of small-scale sustainable farmers and cannot be left under the control of large agribusiness companies or supermarket chains. Only by changing the export-led, free-trade based, industrial agriculture model of large farms can the downward spiral of poverty, low wages, rural-urban migration, hunger and environmental degradation be halted 28. Social rural movements embrace the concept of food sovereignty as an alternative to the neo-liberal approach that puts its faith in an inequitable international trade to solve the world’s food problem. Instead, it focuses on local autonomy, local markets, local production-consumption cycles, energy and technological sovereignty and farmer-to-farmer networks. Niche markets for the rich in the North exhibit the same problems of any agro-export scheme that does not prioritize food sovereignty, perpetuating dependence and hunger.

Social-rural movements understand that dismantling the industrial agri-food complex and restoring local food systems must be accompanied by the construction of agroecological alternatives that suit the needs of small-scale producers and the low-income non-farming population, and that oppose corporate control over production and consumption. Given the urgency of the problems affecting agriculture, coalitions that can rapidly foster sustainable agriculture among farmers, civil society organizations (including consumers), as well as relevant and committed research organizations are needed. Moving towards a more socially just, economically viable, and environmentally sound agriculture will be the result of the coordinated action of emerging social movements in the rural sector in alliance with civil society organizations that are committed to supporting the goals of these farmers movements. The expectation is that through constant political pressure from organized farmers and others, politicians will be more responsive to develop and launch a policies conducive to enhance food sovereignty, to preserve the natural resource base, and to ensure social equity and economic agricultural viability.

Consumers of the North can play a major role by supporting these more solidarious and equitable markets which do not perpetuate the colonial model of “agriculture of the poor for the rich”, but rather a model that catapults small biodiverse farms as the basis for strong rural economies in the South. Such economies will not only provide sustainable production of healthy, agroecologically produced, accessible food for all, but will allow indigenous peoples and small farmers to continue their millennial work of building and conserving the agricultural and natural biodiversity on which we all depend now and more so in the future.

Miguel A. Altieri, University of California, Berkeley

Sunday, 21 February 2010

சர்க்கரை சாப்பிடாததால் இறந்தவர் யாருமில்லை

சர்க்கரை சாப்பிடாததால் இறந்தவர் யாருமில்லை என்று சொல்லியிருப்பதும் "இதுக்குப் போயி அலட்டிக்கலாமா!' This is a good question asked by Sharad pawar. Eventhough he may asked this question to hide his mistakes, the question was right and it should be asked by the scientists and policy makers. I have already discussed this in the Life Killer series 1(refer following link) about this injurious sugarcane in multiple ways.

Comment in reference to the following article appeared in Dinamani....
இன்றைய 16-ம் லூயிக்கள்..

சர்க்கரை சாப்பிடாததால் இறந்தவர் யாருமில்லை-​ விலை உயர்வு பற்றி நாடே கொதித்துக் கொண்டிருக்கையில்,​​ எரியும் நெருப்புக்கு எண்ணெய் வார்த்ததுபோல இத்தகைய கருத்தை தெரிவித்திருக்கிறது தேசியவாத காங்கிரஸ் கட்சியின் கொள்கை முழக்க இதழ் "ராஷ்டிரவாதி'.

விலை உயர்வுக்கு சரத் பவார் மட்டுமே காரணமல்ல என்பதை விளக்குவதற்காக இப்பத்திரிகையில் வெளியான கட்டுரையில் சர்க்கரை சாப்பிடாததால் இறந்தவர் யாருமில்லை என்று சொல்லியிருப்பதும் "இதுக்குப் போயி அலட்டிக்கலாமா!' என்கிற தொனியில் அந்தக் கட்டுரை அமைந்திருப்பதும்தான் அனைவரையும் கோபப்படச் செய்துள்ளது.

ஒரு குடும்பத்தினர் பெட்ரோல்,​​ உணவுப்பொருள்,​​ ஆடம்பரப்பொருள் ஆகிய பலவற்றுக்காகச் செலவிடும் பணத்தை ஒப்பிடும்போது சர்க்கரை விலை உயர்வினால் அக் குடும்பத்தின் மாதச் செலவில் ரூ.60 முதல் 90 வரை அதிகரிப்பது ஒரு பெரிய சுமை அல்ல என்று குறிப்பிடப்பட்டுள்ளதை,​​ மேலெழுந்தவாரியாகப் பார்க்கும்போது,​​ உண்மை போலவே தோற்றம் தரும்.

இன்னும் ஒரு படி மேலேபோய்,​​ "சர்க்கரை அதிகம் சாப்பிடுவதால் நோய்கள் ஏற்படுகின்றன' என்று சொல்லும்போதும்,​​ "உப்பும் சர்க்கரையும் வெள்ளை விஷம்' என்று மருத்துவ உண்மைகள் பேசும்போதும்,​​ சர்க்கரை விலை உயர்ந்தால் நாட்டின் சுகாதாரம் பெருகும் என்றும் மக்களை நினைக்க வைத்துவிடவும் செய்வார்கள்.​ ஆனால் இவையெல்லாம் சரியான வாதமா என்று பார்த்தால்,​​ இல்லை என்பதுதான் கசப்பான உண்மை.

சாதாரண தரம் கொண்ட சர்க்கரையின் விலை கடந்த ஓராண்டில் ஒரு கிலோ ரூ.22லிருந்து ரூ.42 வரை உயர்ந்துள்ளது என்றால்,​​ இதன் அடுத்தடுத்த தாக்கம் இனிப்பு பொருள்களில் மட்டுமன்றி,​​ சாதாரண தேநீர் கடையில் காபி,​​ டீ விலை உயர்வுக்கும் காரணமாக இருக்கிறது என்பதும்,​​ இது ஒவ்வொரு மனிதனுக்கும் நாள்தோறும் கூடுதல் செலவினத்தை ஏற்படுத்துகிறது என்பதும் அமைச்சருக்கோ,​​ அல்லது அவருடைய கொள்கை முழக்கப் பத்திரிகைக்கோ தெரியாதது அல்ல.​ ஆனாலும்,​​ அவர் எதையாவது சொல்லி தன்னைத் தற்காத்துக்கொள்ள வேண்டியிருக்கிறது.​ ​

மகாராஷ்டிர மாநிலத்தில் பொது விநியோகத்துக்காக கையிருப்பில் வைக்கப்பட்டிருந்த 72,684 டன் சர்க்கரையை ரூ.123 கோடி லாபத்துக்கு தனியார் சர்க்கரை வியாபாரிகளுக்கு விற்பனை செய்தது ஏன்?​ என்று ஒரு சங்கடமான கேள்வியை ஆங்கில நாளிதழ்,​​ முதலமைச்சர்கள் கூட்டத்துக்கு முந்தைய நாள் வெளியிட்டதால்,​​ இதையெல்லாம் சமாளிக்கும் விதத்தில் இந்தக் கட்டுரையை "ராஷ்டிரவாதி' வெளியிட்டுள்ளது.

உலகிலேயே பிரேசிலுக்கு அடுத்தபடியாக இந்தியாவில்தான் அதிக அளவு கரும்பு சாகுபடி நடைபெறுகிறது.​ 570 சர்க்கரை ஆலைகளில் 35 கோடி டன் கரும்பு பிழியப்படுகிறது.​ ஆனால் இந்தியாவில் ரேஷன் கடைகளில் கிலோ ரூ.13.50க்கும்,​​ வெளிச்சந்தையில் சர்க்கரையின் தரத்துக்கேற்ப ரூ.35 முதல் ரூ.60 வரைக்கும் கிடைக்கிறது.​ ​ சர்க்கரை விலை உயர்வு மக்களை பாதிக்காதது உண்மையாக இருக்குமென்றால்,​​ ஏன் இந்த இரு விதமான விலை நிர்ணயம்?

மொரார்ஜி தேசாய் தலைமையிலான ஜனதா கட்சி ஆட்சியின்போது,​​ ரேஷன் கடைக்கும் வெளிச்சந்தைக்கும் வேற்றுமை இல்லாத அளவுக்கு சர்க்கரை விலை ஒரே விதமாக அமைந்திருந்தது.​ ஆனால்,​​ அதன் பிறகு அத்தகைய சமநிலை ஏற்படவே இல்லை.​ பல ஆட்சி மாற்றங்கள் ஏற்பட்டபோதிலும் அது சாத்தியமாகவே இல்லை.

சர்க்கரை விலை உயர்வு மக்களைப் பெரிதாக பாதித்ததா இல்லையா என்பது ஒருபுறம் இருக்கட்டும்,​​ இந்த விலை உயர்வால் சர்க்கரை ஆலைகளுக்கு கொள்ளை லாபம் கிடைத்ததா இல்லையா?​ சர்க்கரை விலை உயர்வு மிகக் குறைவு என்ற வாதம் உண்மையாக இருக்குமானால்,​​ இந்த கொள்ளை லாப சர்க்கரை ஆலைகள் சர்க்கரையை விலை உயர்த்தாமல் மக்களுக்கு வழங்கி சேவை செய்திருக்கலாமே!​ சர்க்கரை ஆலைகளின் நண்பர் என்று கருதப்படும் மத்திய வேளாண் அமைச்சர் சரத் பவார்,​​ தானே இவர்களிடம் பேசி,​​ மக்கள் நலனுக்காக இந்தச் சின்ன விலை உயர்வை தடுத்திருக்கலாமே!​ ஏன் செய்யவில்லை?

சர்க்கரை இறக்குமதி செய்வதற்கான அனுமதியை சில மாதங்களுக்கு முன்பு சரத் பவார் அறிவித்திருந்தார்.​ இதன்படி டிசம்பர் 2010 வரை எந்த அளவுக்கு வேண்டுமானாலும் சுங்கவரி இல்லாமல் சர்க்கரையை இறக்குமதி செய்துகொள்ளலாம்.​ இந்த அளவுக்கு சர்க்கரை ஆலைகள் மேல் அன்பு காட்டும் பவார்,​​ ஏழை விவசாயிகள் மீது அன்பு பாராட்டவில்லை என்பது அனைவரும் அறிந்தது.​ இப்போது சர்க்கரை நுகர்வோர் எவரைப் பற்றியுமே அவர் கவலைப்படவில்லை என்பதுதான் அவர் ஆளுமையின் புதிய வெளிப்பாடு.

இந்தியா முழுவதிலும் 4.5 கோடி விவசாயிகள் கரும்பு பயிரிடுகிறார்கள்.​ அவர்கள் சாகுபடி செய்து கொண்டுவந்து தரும் கரும்புக்கு உரிய,​​ நியாயமான விலையை கொடுத்தாலே அவர்கள் விலைஉயர்வை ஓரளவு சமாளிப்பார்கள்.​ ஆனால் அதற்கான எந்த நடவடிக்கையும் எடுக்காமல்,​​ ஆலைகளுக்கு சாதகமாக சட்டத் திருத்த மசோதா கொண்டுவரும் மத்திய வேளாண்மைத் துறை,​​ சர்க்கரை விலை உயர்வால் பாதிப்பில்லை என்பதை மட்டுமே நியாயப்படுத்த முயல்கிறது.

மாநில அரசுகளின் ஆதரவு விலையை ஆலைகள் அளிக்க வேண்டிய கட்டாயமில்லை என்ற சட்டப் பிரிவுக்கு பெரும் எதிர்ப்பு கிளம்பியதால்,​​ அதை மட்டுமே நீக்கினார்கள்.​ ஆனால்,​​ எரிசாராய விற்பனையில் விவசாயிக்கு கணிசமான பங்கு பற்றியும் கண்டுகொள்ளவில்லை.​ ஆலைகளுக்கு அளிக்கப்பட்டுள்ள வேறு சலுகைகளும் அப்படியே அந்த திருத்தப்பட்ட சட்ட மசோதாவில் தொடரவே செய்தன.​ ​

விலைஉயர்வு தாங்கவில்லை என்று துடிக்கிறபோது சர்க்கரை விலையால் யாருக்கும் பாதிப்பில்லை என்று சொல்வது அவர்களது மனநிலையை அம்பலமாக்குகிறது.​ ​ "....பசி தீரும்' என்றால் "உயிர் போகும்' எனச் சொல்லும் செல்வர்கள் நீதி நன்றோ' என்று பாடிய பாவேந்தர் பாரதிதாசனை நினைவுகூர வைத்துவிட்டார்கள்.

Sunday, 14 February 2010

Febraury 14 thought for girls

Febraury 14 thought for girls

ஹ்ஹ்ம் மூட்டயக் கட்டிக்க.. எதுக்கு?

பட்டணந்தான் போகலாமடி பொம்பளே பணங்காசு தேடலாமடி - நல்ல
கட்டாணி முத்தே என் கண்ணாடி நீயும் வாடி பொண்டாட்டி தாயே

டவுனு பக்கம் போகாதீங்க மாப்பிள்ளே டவுனாகிப் போயிடுவீங்க - அந்த
டாம்பீகம் ஏழைக்குத் தாங்காது பயணம் வேண்டான்னா கேளு மாமா

கெட்டவுங்க பட்டணத்த ஒட்டிக்கோணும் என்பதால
கெட்டவுங்க பட்டணத்த ஒட்டிக்கோணும் என்பதால
பட்டிக்காட்ட விட்டுப்போட்டுப் பல பேரும் போவதால
கட்டிச் சோத்தக் கட்டிக் கொள்ளடி பொம்பளே
தட்டிச் சொன்னா கேக்க மாட்டேண்டி - நல்ல
கட்டாணி முத்தே என் கண்ணாட்டி நீயும் வாடி பொண்டாட்டி தாயே

வேலை ஏதுங்க கூலி ஏதுங்க வெக்கக்கேட்ட சொல்றேன் கேளுங்க - அங்கே
வேலை ஏதுங்க கூலி ஏதுங்க வெக்கக்கேட்ட சொல்றேன் கேளுங்க
காலேஜ் படிப்பு காப்பி ஆத்துதான் பிஏ படிப்பு பென்சு தொடைக்குதாம்
ஆளை ஏச்சு ஆளு பொழைக்குதாம் அஞ்சுக்கு ரெண்டு கஞ்சிக்கலையுதாம்
மேலே போறது நூத்துல ஒண்ணு மிச்சமுள்ளது லாற்றியடிக்குதாம்


ஒண்ணான சாமி எல்லாம் ஒண்ணுமே பண்ணாமே தவிக்கையிலே மாப்பிள்ளே
ஒண்ணான சாமி எல்லாம் ஒண்ணுமே பண்ணாமே தவிக்கையிலே
உன்னாலே என்னாகும் எண்ணமே போனா பின்னாலே கேடு மாமா

ராத்திரி பகலா ரிக்சா இழுப்பேன் நைஸா பேசி பைசா இழுப்பேன்
அம்மா ஒதுங்கு ஒதுங்கு
ராத்திரி பகலா ரிக்சா இழுப்பேன் நைஸா பேசி பைசா இழுப்பேன்
ட்ராமா சினிமா சர்க்கஸ் பார்ப்பேன் ராஜா மாதிரி சிகரெட்டும் பிடிப்பேன்
வேத்துப் புடுங்கினா பீச்சுக்குப் போவேன் மீந்தப் பணத்திலே மீனு வாங்குவேன்
ஆத்தாடி உன் கையில குடுப்பேன் ஆக்கச் சொல்லியே சாப்பிட்டுப் படுப்பேன்

மேல இதுக்கு மேல சொல்ல மாட்டேண்டி பொம்பள இந்த ஊரில் இருக்க மாட்டேண்டி - நான்
இப்போதே போவணும் உங்கொப்பாவைக் கேட்டு ஏதாச்சும் வாங்கி வாடி

பட்டணந்தான் போகலாமடி பொம்பளே பணங்காசு தேடலாமடி - அந்தக்
கட்டாணி முத்தே என் கண்ணாடி நீயும் வாடி பொண்டாட்டி தாயே
டவுனு பக்கம் போகாதீங்க மாப்பிள்ளே டவுனாகிப் போயிடுவீங்க - அந்த
டாம்பீகம் ஏழைக்குத் தாங்காது பயணம் வேண்டான்னா கேளு மாமா

மனுஷன மனுஷன் இழுக்கற வேலை வயிறு காஞ்சவன் செய்யற வேலை
மனுஷன மனுஷன் இழுக்கற வேலை வயிறு காஞ்சவன் செய்யுற வேலை
கழுத்துக்கு மீறி பணம் வந்த போது மனுஷன சும்மா இருக்க விடாது
என்னை மறந்து உன்னை மறந்து எல்லா வேலையும் செய்வே துணிஞ்சு
இரவு ராணிகள் வலையில விழுந்து ஏமாந்து போவே இன்னும் கேளு


போலீசு புலி புடிக்கும் மாமா புர்ராவ பேத்தெடுக்கும்
அங்கே போவாதே வீணாக சாவாதே மாமா பொஞ்சாதி பேச்சக் கேளு

அப்படியா ஆஹா .. -

நீ ஒலகம் அறிஞ்ச பொம்மனாட்டி நான் ஒண்ணுமே தெரியாக் கம்மனாட்டி - நீ
ஒலகம் அறிஞ்ச பொம்மனாட்டி நான் ஒண்ணுமே தெரியாக் கம்மனாட்டி
ஊருவிட்டு ஊரு போனா சீரு கெட்டுப் போகுமுன்னு
ஊருவிட்டு ஊரு போனா சீரு கெட்டுப் போகுமுன்னு
உண்மையோட சொன்ன சொல்லு நன்மையாகத் தோணுது

பட்டணந்தான் போக மாட்டேண்டி உன்னையும் பயணமாகச் சொல்ல மாட்டேண்டி நல்ல
கட்டாணி முத்தே என் கண்ணத் தொறந்தவ நீ தான் பொண்டாட்டி தாயே
என்னைத் தனியா விட மாட்டேன்னு என் தலைமேல் அடிச்சு சத்யம் பண்ணு
எங்கப்பனான சத்தியம் சத்தியம் சத்தியம்

ஏரோட்டி பாத்தி புடிச்சு அதிலே நீர் பாய்ச்சு நெல்ல வெதெச்சு - நம்ம
ஊரோடு ஒண்ணாக உள்ளதக் கொண்டு நாம் உல்லாசமாக வாழ்வோம்
ஏரோட்டி பாத்தி புடிச்சு அதிலே நீர் பாய்ச்சு நெல்ல வெதெச்சு - நம்ம
ஊரோடு ஒண்ணாக உள்ளதக் கொண்டு நாம் உல்லாசமாக வாழ்வோம்

pattanam thaan pogalamadi - பட்டணந்தான் போகலாமடி

To hear the song

Movie - kulamagal raathai திரைப்படம்: எங்கள் வீட்டு மஹாலட்சுமி
Singers: Seerkazhi Govindarajan, Jamuna Rani - பாடியவர்: சீர்காழி கோவிந்தராஜன், ஜமுனா ராணி
Lyrics: இயற்றியவர்:
Music: இசை:

Sunday, 7 February 2010

Biodiversity nears 'point of no return' - View point

Biodiversity nears 'point of no return'

Hilary Benn

The decline in the world's biodiversity is approaching a point of no return, warns Hilary Benn. In this week's Green Room, the UK's environment secretary urges the international community to seize the chance to act before it is too late. In 2002, the world's governments made a commitment to significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010.

Although it is hard to measure how much biodiversity we have, we do know these targets have not been met. Our ecological footprint - what we take out of the planet - is now 1.3 times the biological capacity of the Earth. In the words of Professor Bob Watson, Defra's chief scientific adviser and former chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), we are in danger of approaching "a point of no return". So the action we take in the next couple of decades will determine whether the stable environment on which human civilisation has depended since the last Ice Age 10,000 years ago will continue.

To do this, we need to widen the nature of the debate about biodiversity. Flora and fauna matter for their own sake; they lift our spirits and nurture our souls. But our ecosystems also sustain us and our economies - purifying our drinking water, producing our food and regulating our climate. Climate change and biodiversity are inextricably linked. We ignore natural capital at our peril.


The UK and Brazil are hosting a workshop in preparation for the next UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Representatives from more than 60 countries - from the Maldives to China - will attend the three-day event to discuss how we can ensure that the post-2010 targets stand a better chance of being met than those set in 2002. The majority of those attending are from developing countries, including those with the rarest and greatest biodiversity. They need to be listened to.

It is easy to have principles when you can afford then - economics and ecology are interdependent. So when it comes to biodiversity, we desperately need to start restoring links between science and policy, between taking action and evaluating it and between economies and ecosystems. The big challenge will be for the real benefits of biodiversity and the hard costs of its loss to be included in our economic systems and markets. Perverse subsidies and the lack of value attached to the services provided by ecosystems have been factors contributing to their loss. What we cannot cost, we don't value - until it has gone.

Investing in the future

Much greater concerted effort is needed to stop the plunder of our ecosystems. Overfishing has reduced blue fin tuna numbers to 18% of what they were in the mid-1970s. The burning of Indonesia's peat lands and forests for palm oil plantations generates 1.8bn tonnes of greenhouse gases a year, and demand is predicted to double by 2020 compared to 2000. More than seven million hectares are lost worldwide to deforestation every single year. The restoration of our ecosystems must be seen as a sensible and cost-effective investment in this planet's economic survival and growth.

I am optimistic. Talking about the danger of climate change has brought with it opportunities to tackle the biodiversity crisis.

While the 2010 targets have not been met, more than 160 countries now have national biodiversity action plans. Mechanisms now exist for research, monitoring and scientific assessment of biodiversity, although we now need an Intergovernmental Panel on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services to oversee progress in the same way the IPCC does for climate change. One example of progress is the Brazilian Government's new target, which requires illegal deforestation to be cut by 80% by 2020. Last year, deforestation rates in Brazil dropped by 45% against those of 2008, the largest fall since records began. Other examples, closer to home, are the UK's Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) - 89% are in a good or recovering condition.

Our ninth National Park, in the South Downs, was created last year and agri-environmental schemes are producing significant improvements in biodiversity. 2010 is the International Year of Biodiversity and later this year - in Nagoya, Japan - we will have the chance to halt the decline of our planet's biodiversity. It is up to us to seize it.

Hilary Benn is the UK Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

The Green Room is a series of opinion articles on environmental topics running weekly on the BBC News website

Do you agree with Hilary Benn? Is global biodiversity approaching a point of no return? How hopeful are you that we will be able to halt the rate of species loss? Are you optimistic about the future state of the Earth?

Biodiversity nears point of no return supported.To cheak the menance ,all contries are to show concern.The restoration of ecosytems has to be optimistic.Flora and Fauna be alloud to intermingle,man as the agent of distruction must not be controle. Indiscriminet cutting of tree and setting of fire must be stop.Environmental polution be controle to minimum.By so doing the piont of no return will abit be projected further.
Dahiru Lawal Babura(MNES), Babura,Jigawa State Nigeria

Instead of senseless effort to spend taxpayers money to save those cloase to extinction, you better invest in genetic engineering to release better fit species into changed environment. And those can be crops and meat. Imagine giant protein plant based on plankton or krill. They will better serve to "save whales" aims. All this "save biodiversity" call is just a call for money. You cannot overcome basic rules of nature, only the fittiest survive. You are not going to restore some Jurassic biodiversity arent you?
JC, Northwood, UK

....last few words from my letter to the editor in 2001: For thousands of years humans have found a deep inspiration in nature to create works of art or to discover the secrets of the universe. Perhaps it is not too late to acknowledge the ultimate logical revelation that life on Earth without the rest of creation will be empty and forever sorrowful.
Nick Sauter, London Ontario Canada

When I think of the authoritarian practices which are rapaciously destroying wildlife habitat on the edge of Southport, I feel very sceptical about our Secretary of State for the Environment's comments. Protection of biodiversity in this country is currently a joke. Does it take a genius to make it policy renovate unused buildings in the cities? Clearly this government isn't too smart.
Alex Holt, Southport

Really another vaugue dire prediction from some eco activist parading as a scientist. What evidence is there to support his "point of no return" claim? Absolutely none you say, I thought so. Keep spinning the eco yarns no one cares or listens anymore.
Don Simpson, Edmonton, Canada

There are so many different resources under threat, I agree with so many posts here, we have to cut population alongside other initiatives. It seems blindingly obvious that attempting to conserve resources without population control is like trying to fill a bucket with a large hole. It annoys me when I see people having three and four children, there's no other word for it than selfish. But they just don't get it clearly, and until population stops being "someone's elses problem", we're going to get nowhere. What effect would it have, I wonder over the next 30-40 years, if all new prospective parents were limited to birthing only one child? I'm not in any postion to suggest how we would do this, but I think time is fast approaching when we will be forced to take such drastic measures
Mark, Leeds

I agree with Steve Johnson. The human population issue must be addressed by all countries, seriously and soon before solutions to biodiversity and other ecology problems become nonviable. The support systems of this world will collapse, taking humans along.
Lin Penrose, Atascadero,USA

I suspect that in 100 million years time (assuming there are palaeontologists around to examine it) the fossil record corresponding to the 20/21 century will show the sudden deforestation of the entire planet and, in the blink of a geological eye, the extinction of all animals with a body weight greater than 10Kg, (with the exception of around half a dozen species whose population exploded!) This represents a breadth, depth and rate of mass extinction that dwarves even the Permian-Triassic extinction (AKA the "the Great Dying") If all this seems a bit pessimistic, it is worth noting that this has pretty well already happened over much of the developed world. Unless something pretty dramatic happens over the next couple of decades the process will be largely complete, globally, within the lifetime of people alive today! "Climate Change" is an insignificant issue by comparison!
Paul, Wrecclesham, Surrey

This thing is beyond all of us. Whatever governments do it will be, as always, too little or too much and too late. It will be solved by natural means. If it means less human beings then that is what will happen. This is the way of the world, it always was and it always will be. Try not to make things worse but don't get your nickers in a twist about it. Live as you are able and enjoy every minute. The future will take care of itself.
Keith Cooper, Rotherham

Instead of naming 2010 “the International Year of Biodiversity”, the UN should have named it “the International Year for Sustainable Development”. If they had, then maybe the meeting in Nagoya would be more focused on finding solutions to the problems, rather than just creating another framework for awareness.
Richard Aitken, Jakarta, Indonesia

As for Benn's mention of "perverse subsidies", in addition to cross-subsidising biofuels from crops, his Government gives over £700 million of annual public subsidy to factory farming, with its heavy ecological fooprint.
Jim Roland, London, UK

"Can anyone name a species that has gone extinct in the last 50 years?" Neil McEvoy, Guildford, England Estimates vary but roughly 27,000 per year
Giles Bradshaw, Rose Ash, Uk

Britain could set a good lead going into this conference by at least recognising that the concept of 'Prosperity Without Growth' as espoused by Prof Tim Jackson is worthy of consideration. Sadly it seems to have been side-lined. Imagine that we aspire to well-being, social integration and happiness instead of more possessions, bigger houses, more exotic holidays etc. Biodiversity threats and climate change are both symptoms of human greed. Break out of the consumerist paradigm and we might stand a chance. Biofuels must be consigned to history. Using land, water and agricultural resources to grow petrol and electricity is insanity at a time when 1 billion people go hungry. Britain's renewable energy strategy leans heavily on biofuels. If the companies proposing to build palm oil power stations get their way, we shall all soon be helping destroy the rainforests every time we boil a kettle. Apparently we've got the best wind power resource in Europe. So Mr Benn, why import palm oil from Indonesia to generate electricity here?
Robert Palgrave, Woking, England

At the heart of the matter is money and more importantly greed. Increasing populations to increase growth cause the loss of habitat and biodiversity. Surely we can not continue with a world run as a common market. Each country/continent should have a population limit it can sustain itself. As individuals we can make a difference by voting, the shame is there is no one there to vote for. Maybe a Green/UKIP coalition party!!!
Nick Brown, leamington Spa

"economics and ecology are interdependent" Damned right they are Mr Benn !; the more people, the more money, the more people, the more money . . . . And though all of that spiraling upwards out of control, the more planet that gets ripped up to pay for all of it. Like Climate Change, Biodiversity is another symptom; a surface sign of the fundamental, underlying, illness; too much Human Activity on planet Earth. Human Activity = (Number of individuals) x (Individual Impact) The UN says we all have the right to live to the same levels of Individual Impact; mobile phone, wide screen TV and walk-in fridge. So the only part of the equation we have left to control is the (Number of individuals). And no; his piece here does not elevate Mr Benn to the dizzy political heights of World President (or whatever) as one person comments. Oh, it's an excellent piece of work, I agree with every word; well done; welcome to the top of the hill . . . But as a measure of the calibre of a politician; no; it rather more begs when the rest of them are going wake up and smell the forrest fires. We are ripping up the planet faster than it can cope; it's gone past "curbing". It's reached the time to stop; plain, outright; stop ! We have to get the Human population down, stop having kids; save the knowledge we have, and live within the means of the planet. Otherwise; otherwise, . . . ask the lemmings ! Every five years lemming numbers collapse to 20% of their peak numbers. Every five years they overbreed, then they starve to death, and 80% of them die. Is that our plan too ? Another dumb old history of Boom-Bust population cycle ? It used to be 'black death' brought us back into line; now it's going to be the whole planet caving in beneath us. Personally I'd rather we had a plan. Nice piece Mr Benn; it demonstrates that one more person has woken up. Now; about the other 5,999,999,999 ? Cheers Steven
steven walker, Penzance

If Mr Benn wants to take a first step, then he can get the government to kick HMRC into action to deal with the sale of illegaly habitat collected endangered plants being sold on eBay that I have reported to them but which they have not acted upon. But why would I expect that to happen? It'd require actual effort rather than mere talk. Having enforcement agencies like customs that actually act to enforce the illegal trade of endangered species would be a good start. Perhaps they're too busy losing the personal details of the other half of the country on a CD instead?
Ian, Leeds

I agree with the comments about curtailing population growth and economic growth. Deforestation is mainly caused by the increased number of subsistence farmers clearing land for food and the demand for people in developed countries for more goods, not the cutting of trees for forest products. In fact the annual growth of wood from all land use types is three to four times annual demand, not the other way round. The annual growth of biomass captures about 100 billion tonnes of carbon and releases the same amount through decomposition and wild fires etc.(the carbon cycle). Much more of this carbon could be used for energy and other purposes. After all, electic power cannot provide all energy requirements. Regarding Mr. McEvoys query about loss of species over the last 50 years, in the next 50 to 100 years, it may be humans that become extinct!
Keith Openshaw, Vienna, Virginia, USA

Two animals were declared extinct in the first year of the new millennium. They are the Pyrenean ibex (6 January, 2000)and a West African monkey, the Miss Waldron's red colobus monkey (October 2000). Plus the Chinese River Dolphin went extinct in August 2007. See the Global figures for 2009 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Total species assessed = 47,677 Total Extinct or Extinct in the Wild = 875 (2%) [Extinct = 809; Extinct in the Wild = 66]. Total threatened = 17,291 (36%) [Critically Endangered = 3,325; Endangered = 4,891; Vulnerable = 9,075]. Total Near Threatened = 3,650 (8%). Not sure optimism is justified. We need to stop breeding so many humans. In my lifetime (half a century) world population has grown from 2.5 billion to almost 7 billion. To quote David Orr: "If today is a typical day on planet Earth, we will lose 116 square miles of rainforest, or about an acre a second. We will lose another 72 square miles to encroaching deserts, as a result of human mismanagement and overpopulation. We will lose 40 to 100 species, and no one knows whether the number is 40 or 100. Today the human population will increase by 250,000. And today we will add 2,700 tons of chlorofluorocarbons to the atmosphere and 15 million tons of carbon. Tonight the Earth will be a little hotter, its waters more acidic, and the fabric of life more threadbare." 1991 " What is Education For?".
Barbara Grafton, Ely, UK

Hi Bevan, I can't comment on the impact of photosynthesis, although I would be surprised if studies did not exist. However, there are studies which consider changes in the planet's albedo (reflectivity) and how that impacts on global warming. I imagine that they are largely focussed on the transition of ice to water, but there's probably some capture of vegetation changes in the data as well.
Bernie, Bristol

"Can anyone name a species that has gone extinct in the last 50 years?" Neil McEvoy, Guildford, England. Yes the Chinese River Dolphin declared "functioanlly extict in 2006" And Bali and Javan tiger 1950s. There are countless examples.
Philip Crump, Plymouth

"The cutting of population is mandatory. There are now too many people for the planet to support." Population curbs by reducing birth rates will have no effect for 50-70 years. In the meantime, population will continue to increase. So this meme can only be solved by culling the excess population. Very Dickensian. Of course, if we wish to reduce the number of people we have to remove, we should get rid of those who damage the planet most: the richest people. So just go down the list of the top earners and pop them off."My understand of the principles of Evolution is that species are continually mutating to take advantage of different niches and habitats. This might not be as quick as the losses but it seems to show that life will find a way." didn't work out too well for the dodo, did it, all this evolving away from a threat...
Mark, Exeter, UK

"Overfishing has reduced blue fin tuna numbers to 18% of what they were in the mid-1970s." Indeed. So it beggars belief that Mr Benn's own department now seems to be backing away from giving support to a trade ban on the species, does it not? Actions speak louder than words. If the UK government can't get it right on bluefin, no point lecturing anyone else about biodiversity decline!
William, London

I cannot understand why the decreased amount of photosynthesis on land and in the oceans is not counted as a possible cause of global warming, if there is any real warming. A vast amount of land has been cleared for development, that is, cities and monoculture farms, so land based photosynthesis and transpiration must have significantly decreased. This means that more of the incident radiation from the sun simply heats up the ground. We are told that the oceans are a mess of plastic and chemicals from sewerage plus debris. I suspect that this is causing less algal growth, again another absorber of the sun's energy. If 0.04% of the atmosphere in the form of CO2 is a cause of global warming then why not photosynthesis and transpiraton? Can anyone provide some comparitive figures on heat absorption by fauna and flora compared to atmospheric gasses?
Bevan Dockery, Perth, Western Australia

When people talk about population what they really mean is poor people 'over there'. The real problem is consumption and greed by the already wealthy. No one but Governments can stop the forests falling or the seas being emptied. Our fishing policy is a joke, and can only lead to one conclusion, and we must make the change to a non-deforestation driven agriculture. There is plenty of already converted land waiting to grow crops that is sitting abandoned. But of course that means that the businesses and governments do not get the value of the timber that they prize so dearly. And I agree entirely with Martin Jacobs. The Green community has got its priorities wrong by making every argument about climate.
Dr Dolittle, Cornwall, UK

The cutting of population is mandatory. There are now too many people for the planet to support. We must have power and the hydrogen cell engine. In order to generate the power we need, we must use the power of the sun on massive batteries of solar cells encircling the globe and connected by a ring main also encircling the globe with spurs to north and south. It must be a WORLD grid. This will bring power to all countries. Deserts can then be irrigated and the rain forests restored. This massive project will give employment to ALL peoples around the earth. Hence hunger and deprivation can be banished. Don't say it is impossible. If Malaysia can supply 136kV to Sumatra beneath the South China Sea then we CAN build the world grid. Solar cells are, in development about where the internal combustion engine was in the 1890s. What militates against the project is one man's hatred of another chiefly in the name of religion. Moslem, Christian, Buddhist, Hindu, Shintoist etc. We ALL have to learn to be friends with one another. for the Project to be successful. This project I have outlined, once up and running, burns no fossil fuel and is pollution free. It does not depend on a finite source for, if the Sun dies, then we all die. This must be the greatest challenge faced by the Human Race since time began.
John Cupis, Timsbury, Bath, UK

what is there to disagree about - except, perhaps, the optimism? indeed, wary of being dubbed a catastrophist (catastrophists are so tiresome and they try to make everyone feel so guilty), environmentalists always end on a false note of optimism. Hilary Benn's note of optimism doesn't ring true. when we can disaggregate economics and politics from international concerns such as the environment, we might make progress. sadly, locked as we are into nation states, this will not come to be and the short-term vision of poticians and economists will bulldoze the long-term necessities of the environment. Hopeful, optimistic? What do you think?
stuart, maputo, mozambique

Can anyone name a species that has gone extinct in the last 50 years?
Neil McEvoy, Guildford, England

Having read the article I still fail to see how Mr Benn proposes to reconcile the obvious conflict of interests between environmental concerns and the economic growth of which, he speaks so reverentially. Surely fundamentalist market globalism is based on the core concept of exponential growth by the exploitation of finite resources? It is simply not possible for change to be enacted by the British political class. Their parties receive the lion's share of their funding from the very business interests who profit from the ongoing destruction of the planet. Why should we believe that the political class has suddenly experienced a change of heart and decided to stand with the people against big business? They've certainly never done it before.
Dr Michael Swann, Thurso, Scotland

Global biodiversity may well be approaching the point of no return but it's an issue that most people can't really do anything about. One of the defining aspects of rich biodiveristy is strong local differences, there is biodiversity, literally, on our doorsteps. The government need to pull their finger out and help local people protect and encouage their own areas, that includes people in the rainforest and people in the UK. Massive, money driven, global events are not the answer.
Mike, Manchester

why do the rich western countries not 'rent' vast tracts of third world land in order to protect it from having to be used for the income of the people.
jphndark, uk

Spot on! Now what are the BBC going to do to help educate people be part of the solution? It's not enough to have negative journalism now, we need educational and inspirational articles to show the lay person what they can do to help.
Stephen Hobbs, Bristol, England

Yes. Biodiversity, the preservation of forests, and the organic integrity of the oceans, and overpopulation are all far more important and immediate issues than CO2. The green movement has got its priorities wrong.
Martin Jacobs, Stockport UK

If we continue to be selfish it is not a problem. Then we must ask ourselves "do we care about our children or their childrens' future?" One would hope that we do care and therefore we should address the issue without delay. Hilary Benn is to be admired for his forthright statement.
Martin P Mannion, Cork, Ireland

This is all very well, but his Government's support for biofuels for transport is in direct collision both with world biodiversity and cutting net greenhouse gas emissions. It has meant the abolition of set-aside across Europe so valuable for biodiversity, and also is leading to more total imports of palm oil, being a major contributor to the expected catastrophic doubling of demand for palm oil he speaks of above. His Government has gone even further and awarded double ROCs for electricity generation from fresh vegetable oil, sparking a wave of planning applications for such power plants that can readily use palm oil, and inevitably will further increase the UK's 'overshoot' of net food imports, so exporting even more deforestation and hunger.
Jim Roland, London, UK

I am completely agreed with this article and I am giving a lot of thanks to the UK Secretary of State Hilary Benn. Of course, the decline of world's biodiversity is approaching a point of no return. As a Local Government Professional Civil Engineer I am to work with biodiversity while planning and implementing of any infrastructure development project. Due to the green house effect a lot of species of amphibians, plants and animals have been disappeared, which could not be return. And also others which still exists, their survival are so much vulnerable. As climate change and biodiversity are inextricable linked, so,it is very essential to arrange an international conference like Copenhagen summit. Although we now need an intergovernmental Panel on Biodiversity and Ecosystem services to oversee progress in the same way the IPCC does for climate change. Brazilian and UK Government have been taken tremendous initiative for the improvement of Biodiversity. I hope and believe that it would be possible to halt the rate of species loss. Yes, I am optimistic about the future state of the Earth.
Engr Salam, LGED, Kushtia, Bangladesh

And what is the main cause for this loss of bio-diversity? I'm no expert but would guess that's it mankind. With a global population increase of around 75 million people per annum is it any wonder that nature is losing out? Hilary Benn links loss of bio-diversity and global warming (man made global warming to be precise) but surely the ever growing number of people on the planet is the root cause? I appreciate how sensitive the subject is, but unless we bring population into the equation and discussion I fear the debate is not going anywhere meaningfull.
Peter, East Grinstead

The General Assembly of the United Nations has declared 2010 the international year of Biodiversity. Mr.Hilary Benn has done a great job by writing for the biodiversity. I too feel pain and helplessness in my bones when I see the plight of other creatures. I too consider myself very optimistic. But how can we remain optimistic at all the places? There are many powerful professionals including political leaders who are optimistic about infrastructural, industrial and agricultural growth rates. This optimism and penchant for the competitive norms is contrary to cause of biodiversity. If we look at the pressures of the existing trends, efforts to check human population and promotion for biodiversity come at less prior positions. Even these professionals too understand the importance of biodiversity but they succumbed to the pressures of the current trends. Just look at urban areas and the current model of development, one can easily make out that how much population pressure is there on the lands and oceans. We are constantly focussing on the result, not on the source. Even while raising critical issues we are more bothered about declining biodiversity, less worried about growing human population. We can not get success unless we restrict some of our optimism in those existing trends which are fatal for the balanced existence. I fully support the work of the author of this article. Some how, I feel we need a coordinated strategy more focussed on the source and reasonable focus on the result very urgently.
Sanjay Singh Thakur, Indore,India

All the depressing statistics and stories we read every day of deforestation and loss of ecosystems never appear to contain suggestions of what the ordinary person on the street can do: please tell us which products we should avoid buying, and name and shame those companies who are contributing to unnecessary destruction of the world's resources. I'm sure if people were made more aware, they would think twice before laying hardwood flooring or buying products that contain palm oil.
Rob Morton, Twickenham

Human beings have a nearly inexhaustable capacity for innovation and overcoming seemingly insurmountable barriers. I have no doubt that we will be adequate caretakers of the richness the earth.
Ronald kern, Marlborough Connecticut, usa

Loss of habitat and biodiversity is probably going to be the end of the world. Global warming is very likely much less of a threat to the future habitability of this planet. All of the extractable oil left in the ground WILL be extracted and burnt. Populations (of humans) WILL continue to skyrocket. 95% of all humans WILL act with shortsightedness to improve their lives, and their children's lives, by consuming more. This is as true of illegal Indonesian loggers as of Surrey stockbroker belt frequent flyers. I do not share Mr Benn's optimism, and I'm not sure he isn't just putting a brave face on things. Having faith in agencies and mechanisms to sort everything out nicely is not something history tells us is wise. As long as we have no enforcable global laws we will continue as a species to be irresponsible. The prospect of an all powerful global force is terrifying anyway, even assuming it is benign and clever enough to save the planet. My only hope is that we manage to develop a plentiful source of cheap clean power (fusion?). The next step down from that is to remember that in a million years the ecosystem should start to recover from all the toxic waste and runaway warming that wiped humans out. Grim or what? Once it sinks in we'll all go crazy and society will start to fall apart. 50 yrs from now we'll be living in isolated domes if we're one of the 1%. The rest? Hmmm. No bees, no fish, no fresh water, no coral reefs, no oil, no rainforests... jellyfish soup anyone? I'm not a natural pessimist, but I do have a habit of spotting things from further off than other people. Help me out here, tell me why I'm wrong?
Ben Johnson, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

The ONLY way to preserve the ecosystems we utterly depend on is to CUT population growth initially and then cut population. ANY other suggestion just amounts to a lot of hot air in the end - literally - which makes matters worse. Only China has faced up to this so far. Nobody else even wants to even talk about it(not even Hilary Benn it seems)... It should be introduced urgently as a subject in primary schools worldwide(easy enough to do after all) so that at least people would grow up with the idea that maybe only one or two children is a GOOD IDEA and what the consequences will be(starvation, increasing genetic damage as a result of chemical pollution) if families continue to be larger than that. And that conversely with the voluntary control of population, with the knowledge we now have Earth could be a paradise as never before… Meanwhile 'I wish I liked the human race. I wish I liked its silly face. I wish when I was meeting one that I could say, 'What jolly fun' ...'
Simon Morrison, Truro

Hilary Benn's assessment is true. Tragically, the obvious solutions are unpalatable for our materialistic society - for example, if the UK and other wealthy countries were to ban import of all non-recycled and non-FSC certified wood/paper products (from sustainably managed forests) and take similar action with other imported goods that are destroying the Planet's biodiversity, it would have almost no real impact on our standard of living and would have an enormous immediate positive impact on biodiversity and a sustainable future for our children and grandchildren. I live in hope but time is running out .....
Chris P, Ipswich UK

I think Hilary Benn's concerns are real. I am dismayed at a couple of things that he says. Firstly the idea that a UN super quango a la IPCC will improve the situation - it will manifestly tie all action into inaction and waste valuable resources that need channeling into real solutions on to nonsensical posturing. Secondly his persistent belief in Climate change - caused by co2 - the evidence for this is non-existent and the "inextricable" linking of this non problem to the very real problem of loss of habitat and bioduversity. "Inextricable" to me is inexplicable. They are manifestly unrelated - and linking the two ensures that no effective action on biodiversity is possible. So a bleak article. It identifies a problem - destroys its own logic and ultimately comes up with a non-solution
Gary Winter, Strathmiglo Fife

I am not optimistic about biodiversity, and therefore us too, as we are a part of it. We are like children who wish that everything will remain the same, without us having to do a thing. We are dreaming our planets life away. If we as a species grew up, looked around u,s and took right action, we would still have only a little time to halt the losses, but at least we will have tried. If we put the effort we put into acquisition on an individual level, and war on a global level, and turned all that mental energy that characterizes us as humans, we could do this. But I am still not optimistic that we will..........
L Ashford, Birmingham

My understand of the principles of Evolution is that species are continually mutating to take advantage of different niches and habitats. This might not be as quick as the losses but it seems to show that life will find a way. Politicians talk all the time about tipping points but its an opinion, do we really know? We have vastly modified the landscape of the British Isles and, as a consequence, the biodiversity within them. It must ring a little hollow to developing countries when we telling them they can't do what we have. There have been vastly different climates during the history of the earth. During each climate life has expanded to fill each nook and cranny. Even if we wipe out 99.99% of species, over time, new species will evolve to replace them. This tipping point, and the one over climate change, is just a measure of the arrogance of mankind. We believe so much that we are masters of everything, and have the ability to manage everything. So far we've not managed to back this up at all.
Mick Sheppard, York, UK

The country would be in a much better state if Hilary Benn was Prime Minister. He is brilliant at a constituency level and assured and respected on a national and international level. Surely the best proof that not all politicians are the bane of all evil!
Lewis Smith, Leeds

I agree we need to seize the opportunity to stop the damage to nature and biodiversity. I would like to know why nobody in the UK takes seriously a plan by the ecuadorian government to leave 6000 million dollars worth of oil untouched in a very highly biodiverse area of the Amazon, known as Yasuni National Park and one of the most important natural reserves of the world. This 2 year old plan to leave the oil in return for contributions from the international community is now in serious jeopardy as too few countries have been negotiating the details of the plan, such as Germany and Spain. What about the rest? Also why is this important plan only being broadcast in the spanish version of the BBC?
Victor Velecela, Edinburgh

Hilary!When are you going to grasp the population nettle?The world cannot sustain its present population to our standard of living never mind the 9 billion that we seem to accept as inevitable.Big business wants more and more people,the planet doesn't.When you're grandchildren ask what became of the millions of species about to be lost how will you explain it?
steve johnson, whitwick,leics

Mr. Benn, can I direct you to the recent comments of the PM, your party leader: He said: "A fair society is one where everyone who works hard and plays by the rules has a chance to fulfil their dreams whether that's owning a bigger house, taking a holiday abroad, buying a new car or starting a small business." Those are definitely 3 things - under most circumstances 4 - that, under the exponential growth model that governments drool over, typically have a heavy toll on the environment. So what's your priority?
Ryan, Glasgow

No we are not approaching a point of no return in biodiversity. When the last human dies, the bones will be crawling with flies and ants. Anyone who acknowledges Garrett Hardin's economic thesis of "The Tradgedy of the Commons" will see that the greed and selfishness of the human race will lead to its downfall. The colony collapse of bees and the decline of fish stocks in the world's oceans are warnings of the destruction wrought by the human race. However with in ever increasing rate of population growth and desire for economic growth, the end of our species looks inevitable. But life will continue to evolve and perhaps produce an intelligent species better able to control its emotions and demands so that it can live in harmony with all other life forms.

Bevan Dockery, Perth, Western Australia

I agree that biodiversity must be protected and sooner rather than later. Here in Tasmania, the whole island (around the size of the UK)is under species attack for greed. Ancient cool climate rain forests are being clear-felled en mass and the trees sent to the wood chipper for export.In the case of Eucalypt, the chips are used to make paper in Asia. In the case of the ancient Myrtle and Blackwood, the chips are sent to Japan to generate electricity. The understory and trees not required are burned, along with the limbs, to prevent re-seeding. The area is then covered with 1080 poison, to wipe out any herbivore before seedlings of monoculture plantations are planted. Carnivorous animals, such as Tasmanian Devils, Eagles and Hawks are also killed by ingesting the dead herbivores. This death takes around 80 hours and is agonising. The blue gum plantations are a cost effective method of harvesting timber. It is also a way of cutting labour cost and therefore jobs. Tasmania's cold climate rain forests sequester 5 times the carbon of any other forest on the planet. This desecration is removing biodiversity on a massive scale.
David Leigh, Derby, Tasmania

JC, Northwood seems to think that cooking up some new animals will solve the problem! he clearly has as much understanding of ecology as he does of genetic engineering. The ecosystems of the world are finely tuned and loss (or introduction) of any species can have truly disastrous consequences for that ecosystem. And the humans in it too. Its' not about preserving cuddly pandas - rats, fleas, hagfish - they all deserve protection to protect their ecosystems and prevent catastrophe.
Paul Coyne, Glasgow, Scotland

99% of all species that ever existed are extinct. 0% of people anticipating the end of the world have been correct. What we have to decide is wether or not the world we are creating is what we want. It looks likely that the world in 2100 may not look anything like the world today. Unfortunately, this won't mean flying cars and cyborgs, this mean, no wildlife, no fish, no forests. But plenty of info-mercials, ready made meals, electronic gizmos and hand sanitizer. Sounds like a bad deal to me.
Max, Amsterdam, Netherlands

When species go extinct they don't come back - there never was "a point of return" in the first place. The only species that will survive this mass extinction will be those 'synanthropic' species that benefit from our presence - such as rats, diseases, escapees from biotechnology labs and of course crops and cattle and associated pests. Lets hope Jurassic Park becomes a reality.
Mark Pajak, Bristol

The single issue underlying environmental damage is population growth, yet it seems that no politican will even mention this. It is for fear of being labelled as racist ? or fear of alienating immigrant communities ? The UK and EU can't manage the rest of the world, but we can do something about immigration into Europe and make sensible choices about our energy and food sources. Our government, like most if not all others, is wedded to the idea of eternal growth in GDP - and the simplest way to grow GDP is to allow the population to increase through immigration (as in the UK over the last 10-15 years). The main arguments that are usually trotted out are that we need more people to support an ageing population, and people to do low paid menial tasks - both of these arguments are fatuous. We need to adopt a new set of success measures that we judge governments on, not short term growth but long term trends in the quality of life and the state of the environment (trouble is these are both hard to measure, and policitians tend to do what's easy and will get them re-elected rather than what's needed ).
Ian , Stockton, UK